Bring a large pot of lightly salted water to a boil. Add egg noodles; cook, stirring occasionally until tender yet firm to the bite, about 3 minutes. Drain. Rinse with cool tap water until cooled, 1 to 2 minutes.
Heat oil in a deep skillet over medium-high heat. Add ginger and garlic; cook and stir until fragrant, about 1 minute. Stir in leeks and cook until slightly browned, about 3 minutes. Add carrots and celery; cook and stir, about 2 minutes. Add potatoes; cook and stir, about 2 minutes.
Cover skillet and cook until vegetables release some moisture, about 5 minutes. Stir in turmeric, white pepper, and salt. Pour in water and bring soup to a boil.
Bring vegetable broth to a boil in a separate pot. Remove from heat and pour in soup. Stir in egg noodles. Return to heat and simmer until flavors combine, about 5 minutes.
Substitute chicken broth for the vegetable broth if desired.
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